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Almutairi, A. Practical guidance for the use of a pattern-matching technique in case-study research: A case presentation. MacDonald, G. Mitchell Red. Oxford: Oxford University Press Inc. Alvesson, M. Tolkning och reflektion. Vetenskapsfilosofi och kvalitativ metod. Lund: Studentlitteratur. Alvin, J. Music Therapy Revised Edition. London: John Claire Books. Alzheimer, A. Schnell Rred. Berlin: Georg Rehmer. Alzheimerforeningen Fakta om demens. Hentet online 7. Washington D. Magisterbladet Psykodynamisk leksikon.

Andreasen, J. Patient information om hjerteklapoperation. Denmark: Aalborg Hospital. Andreasen, L. Palliativ GIM-terapi - Forsoning ved livets afslutning. Dansk Musikterapi 2 1. Palliativ musikterapi. Dansk Musikterap i 2 1. Ansdell, G. Talking about music therapy. A dilemma and a qualitative experiment. British Journal of Music Therapy 10 1 : Musical Elaboration. What has new musicology to say to music therapy?.

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Aldershot: Ashgate. Community Music Therapy. Antonovsky, A. Assagioli, R. New York: Hobbs, Dorman. Austin, D. I Carey, L. Axline, V. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin. Baars, B. Cognition, Brain, and Consciousness. Academic Press. Badstue, Marianne Nyhedsbrev www. Bae, B. Avhandling til graden Dr. Philos, Det utdanningsvitenskapelige fakultetet, Universitetet i Oslo. Baird, A. Memory for music in Alzheimer's disease: Unforgettable?

Neuropsychology Review 19 1 : Music evoked autobiographical memory after severe acquired brain injury: Preliminary findings from a case series. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation: An International Journal. Bajo, V. Cortical modulation of auditory processing in the midbrain. Frontiers in neural circuits 6 , Article Baker, F.

Modifying the melodic intonation therapy program for adults with severe non-fluent apasia. Music therapy perspectives 18 : The effects of live, taped, and no music on people experiencing posttraumatic amnesia. Journal of Music Therapy 38 3 : The effects of song singing on improvements in affective intonation of people with traumatic brain injury.

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Journal of Music Therapy 42 2 : Voicework in Music Therapy Research and Practice. Songwriting: methods, techniques and clinical applications for music therapy clinicians, educators and students. Stott, D. Therapeutic songwriting in music therapy, Part II: Comparing the literature with practice across diverse clinical populations. Bakhtin, M. The Dialogic Imagination. Rabelais och skrattets historia. Bokforlaget Anthropos, Uddevalla. Baklien, B. Norsk institutt for by-og regionforskning.

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Mentalization based treatment for borderline personality disorder. World Psychiatry 9: Bateson, G. Steps to an ecology of mind. New York: Ballantine. Bauer, J. Intuitiv kommunikation og hemmeligheden ved spejlneuroner. Baxter, H. A, MacEwan, L. Beck, B. GIM with traumatized refugees. Musikterapi i social rehabilitering. I Ridder, H. Aalborg: Institut for Kommunikation, Aalborg Universitet. Aalborg Universitet. Upubliceret rapport. Beck, R. Choral singing, performance perception, and immune system changes in salivary immunoglobulin A and cortisol.

Music Perception 18 1 : Beebe, B. Representation and internalization in infancy: Three principles of salience. Psychoanalytic Psychology 11 2 : Infant Research and Adult Treatment. Co-constructing interactions. New York: The Analytic Press. Benenzon, R. Music therapy manual. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Music Therapy in Child Psychosis. The theory of music therapy starting with the concept of iso. Music therapy theory and manual: contributions to the knowledge of nonverbal contexts. Benjamin, J. Like subjects, love objects. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Shadow of the other: Intersubjectivity and gender in psychianalysis. From Many into One. Attention, Energy, and the Containing of Multitudes. Psychoanalytic Dialogues 15 2 : Benson, H. The Relaxation Response. New York: HarperCollins. How facial expressions in a Rett syndrome population are recognised and interpreted by those around them as conveying emotions. Neurophysiological responses to music and vibroacoustic stimuli in Rett syndrome. Research in Developmental Disabilities 35 6 : Bernardi, L.

Cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and respiratory changes induced by different types of music in musicians and non-musicians: the importance of silence. Berridge, K. Building a neuroscience of pleasure and well-being. Psychology of Well-being. Theory, Research and Practice 1 3 : Bertelsen, J. Energifelt og musik. Modspil 27 : Bialystok, E. Bilingualism: Consequences for mind and brain. Trends in cognitive sciences 16 4 : Bigand, E. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences : Binder, P.

Hva er relasjonell psykoanalyse? Tidsskrift for Norsk Psykologforening 43 9 : Bittman, B. Recreational music-making modulates the human stress response: a preliminary individualized gene expression strategy. Recreational music-making: a cost-effective group interdisciplinary strategy for reducing burnout and improving mood states in long-term care workers. Advances in Mind-Body Medicine 19 : Blood, A. Intensely pleasurable responses to music correlate with activity in brain regions implicated in reward and emotion.

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Australian journal of music therapy Bonde, L. Nordisk Tidsskrift for Musikkterapi 3 1 : Nordic Journal of Music Therapy 6 2 : Metaphor and Narrative in Guided Imagery and Music. Journal of the Association for Music and Imagery 7 : Opslag i nyudgaven af Gads Musikleksikon. Musik og smertebehandling. I Fasting U. I Fink-Jensen, K. Dansk musikterapis historie. I Darnley-Smith, R. Musikterapi Forskerskolen i musikterapi - en international succes. Ridder Red. Festskrift : Hertevig forlag. Musikterapi i psykiatrien. Musik og Menneske, Introduktion til musikpsykologi. Fredriksberg: Samfundslitteratur.

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I Grocke, D. Musikterapi i psykiatrien i Danmark: Klinisk praksis, forskning og formidling.

En statusrapport. Musikterapi i psykiatrien online MIPO 7 1. Music listening and the experience of surrender. An exploration of imagery experiences evoked by selected classical music from the Western tradition. I Klempe, H. Cultural Psychology of Musical Experience. Advances in Cultural Psychology Vol. Musical life stories. Narratives on health Musicking.

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Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews Music interventions for preoperative anxiety. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 6. Music interventions for improving psychological and physical outcomes in cancer patients. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 8. Music therapy for acquired brain injury. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 7. Breakwell, G. Research methods in psychology , 2. Breivik, A. Transskriberet interview med Lis Karlsen, bilag 1. Semester projektrapport, Musikterapiuddannelsen, Aalborg Universitet. Briggs, C. A Model for Understanding Musical Development. Music Therapy 10 1 : Brodal, P.

The Central Nervous System. Structure and Function. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Brooks, D. Creative approaches for reducing burnout in medical personnel. The Arts in Psychotherapy 37 : Brown, L. Music research with children and youth with disabilities and typically developing peers: A systematic review. Journal of Music Therapy 49 3 : Brown, R. Opioids for agitation in dementia. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Bruhn, H. Brummel-Smith, K. Alzheimer's di sease and the promise of music and culture as a healing process.

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Case Studies in Music Therapy. Phoenixville: Barcelona Publishers. Kartlegging gjennom musikkterapeutisk improvisasjon. In: C. Kenny Red. Defining Music Therapy. The Dynamics of Music Psychotherapy. The Nature of Meaning in Music Therapy. Ken Bruscia interviewed by Brynjulf Stige. Nordic Journal of Music Therapy 9 2 : Buchhave, S. Tidsskriftet Dansk Musikterapi 11 1 : Budson, A.

Understanding Memory Dysfunction. Review article. The Neurologist 15 2 : Bunt, L. London: Routledge. Lon don: Routledge. Bush, C. Portland, Oregon: Rudra Press. Butterton, M. Music and Meaning. Opening minds in the caring and healing professions. Oxon: Radcliff Medical Press. Byriel, C. Introduktion til stemmelyd, krop og psyke. Cadrin, L. Journal of the Association of Music and Imagery 10 Callesen, B.

Musikterapeut i musikskolen og i folkeskolen. Dansk Musikterapi 5 1 Campbell, D. Cannella, H. Choice and preference assessment research with people with severe to profound developmental disabilities: A review of the literature. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 26 1 : Carlson, J. Family therapy techniques: Integrating and tailoring treatment. New York, NY: Routledge. Ceccato, E. Italian Journal of Psychopathology 15 4 : s. Jeg har dokumenter som beviser det!

Og jeg er ikke stolt av den kirkelige behandling av mine kolleger! Sogneprest Ole Berg til Evje prestegjeld var selv lesar. Livet ut! Bergan skriver vakkert om kirkens offisielle syn. Kor Det vil vera ei katastrofe for dei kristne verdiane, seier Edvardsen til Dagen. Me var i mindretal i den kampen, og det er det demokrati handlar om, seier Edvardsen.

Publisert He insisted that geology as a study of history depended on divine revelation, but should also be built on the sound philosophical basis of Bacon and Newton. Biographical sketch1 Granville Penn was born in Spring Gardens, a hamlet in the parish of Wooburn, Buckinghamshire,2 on December 9, , the fifth but second surviving and youngest son of Thomas Penn, and the grandson of William Penn, who founded the colony of Pennsylvania in America.

Together they had four sons and five daughters, with one of each dying in infancy. One became a barrister and another became an Anglican clergyman. He was a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries,8 wrote several books dealing with biblical criticism and published a number of competent translations of ancient Greek works, including a critical revision of the English version of the New Testament.

He also wrote some theological works particularly related to biblical chronology past and future and the early history of post-Flood mankind. Many of these works went through more than one edition. In addition he carefully read and responded to the reviews of his first edition of Comparative Estimate in such journals as the Eclectic Review, Journal of Science and the British Critic. Nevertheless, he was not insensitive to the charge from the geologists, to whose theories he was offering critique, that he was not qualified to comment on the subject.

The Mineral Geology, confidently reposes on its delusive error, that he who sees most, judges best; and it expects, by that rule, to secure the palm in every geological contest. As if judgement, were the necessary product of vision. But, as the two faculties have no such necessary ordination and dependence; he who sees enough, with a more instructed judgement, will better apprehend the fundamental truths of geology, than he who sees more than enough, with a judgement less instructed.

But, it is also no less certainly true; that all the physical sciences combined cannot serve the philosopher to apprehend the historical basis on which alone the complex Science of Geology can securely stand, unless he is further succoured by the concurring auxiliaries of Sacred and Ancient Learning. This theory of probabilities, I shall now proceed to unmask; in order that we may be able to distinguish and ascertain exactly, how far his geognosy of fact is also a geognosy of hypothesis, and thus reveals itself to be only another variety of that Alchymical Geology, which has already been examined and exposed.

First, Penn argued that Genesis and geology ought to be connected because it was philosophically permissible, even necessary, to attempt to identify the God of Scripture with the God of Nature, that is, to show that they are one and the same God, as Scripture itself teaches. And since God had communicated certain historical facts about the original creation of the earth and the Flood, it would certainly not be prudent to disconnect them from the geological study of the surface of the earth.

The history of the origin and relations of all and each of these, is therefore as much a professed object of Revelation, as the history of the origin and relations of Man himself. But, Penn argued, according to the Bible, these judgments had universal physical, as well as spiritual, effects on the earth. Therefore, what the Bible said about the origin, formation and universal changes to the earth was a professed object of divine revelation.

No system of physics, is imparted to us; but fundamental physical facts are most certainly imparted to us, in order that we may have a secure and certain basis on which to found the system which, by the due exercise of our intelligence, we may construct, and which could, otherwise, never have acquired any secure and certain basis at all.

Our reason is, indeed, to work; but, it is set right in the first instance, that it might not necessarily work wrong. We have, therefore, no physical system, but, we have grounding physical facts. Although, therefore, we are not to look for physical science technically so called, or for a system of physics, in the history, it is nevertheless manifest, that it behoves us to endeavour to trace the harmony subsisting between the physical facts which are there declared or intimated, and the physical phenomena which are apparent in the globe; from the investigation of which harmony, by the light of sound philosophy, we shall be able to deduce, and establish, a true Mosaical Geology.

It would argue a very great obtuseness of intellect, not to be able to discern the difference between physical facts and a system of physics; the former of which, though not the latter, are included in the Mosaical history, and they therefore challenge our first attention, in considering the history of the earth or the foundations of Geology.

Therefore, expertise in the study of the latter was no guarantee of accuracy in the reconstruction of the former. What true comparison can be made, between the measurement of present objects of sense and the recovery of past facts of history? Because we can apply rules of arithmetic or mathematics to present objects, we are not therefore capacitated to recall past events.

In the former case, we have the evidence of the truth always with us; in the latter, we must seek it elsewhere, for we can never find it in the subject matter of our study. It contemplates, not only what is, but what has been. It embraces the history of our globe, as well as its actual composition; it endeavours to trace the succession of events which have preceded its present state; to ascertain, not only the changes which have taken place, but the causes, or, in other words, the physical connexion of those changes; and to determine the order, the time, and the circumstances, under which they were effected.

The province of the Geologist resembles therefore in some respects that of the Historian: he must diligently examine ancient documents. But Penn argued that these geologists developed faulty theories because they rejected or ignored the written historical documents, that is, Genesis. But, what could we make of monuments and medals, if it were not for the auxiliary references of history? It was wisely observed by Mr. Now, the voucher that could establish the fact respecting the true mode of first formations, must have been a witness of that mode; but, the only witness of the mode of first formations or creations, was the Creator Himself.

Within the limits of this General Elementary Scheme, all speculation must be confined which would aspire to the quality of sound Geology; yet, vast is the field which it lays open, to exercise the intelligence and research of sober and philosophical mineralogy and chemistry.

Upon this legitimate ground, those many valuable writers, who have either incautiously lent their science to uphold and propagate the vicious doctrine of chaotic geogony, or who have too cautiously withheld their science from exposing and refuting it, may geologise with full security; and, transferring their mineralogical superstructures from a quick-sand to a rock, may concur to promote that true advancement of natural philosophy, which Newton held, and demonstrated, to be inseparable from a proportionate advancement of the moral. They may thus, at length, succeed in perfecting a true philosophical geology; which never can exist, unless the principle of Newton form the foundation, and the relation of Moses, the working-plan.

Volume II treats the changes to the earth since the first formation, focussing primarily on the Noachian Deluge. After an page introduction in Volume I, in which Penn clarified the arguments in the book by responding to critics of his first edition, he then endeavoured methodically to show that Mineral Geology was contradictory to the Newtonian and Baconian principles of philosophising.

This is the part which, Penn rightly said in his introduction, was ignored by his negative critics, but which was fundamental to his whole argument. So it is important to consider it carefully. These, he said, are mutually exclusive, even contradictory guides, for Mosaical Geology rested on divine testimony about historical facts, whereas Mineral Geology ignored this inspired Scriptural account and constructed its history solely from geological phenomena and chemical and mechanical principles, as then understood. This, they claimed, was a conclusion resulting from the methodical combination of observation, experimentation, and inductive logic based on proven principles of physics, as advocated by Newton and Bacon.

Newton, he argued, believed that by His great intelligence God initially formed the earth, immediately and perfectly, in a solid ellipsoidal condition suitable to the end for which it was formed that is, a habitation for life , and not as a chaotic mass which would evolve by the mere laws of nature to the intended end. Penn illustrated this contradiction between Newton and Mineral Geology by considering the spherical shape of the earth. He contended that Newton merely supposed the once liquid state of the earth as a philosophical hypothesis in order to demonstrate something mathematically, but that Newton gave no evidence of believing that this supposition actually was geological fact.

If any one of the three was originally formed perfect for its end, so also were they all. From this discussion he proposed two principles of first formations of plant and animal matter. First, those first formations of the Creating Agent anticipated by an immediate act, effects which were thenceforward to be produced only by a gradual process, of which He then established the laws. Similarly, the botanist would be incapable of discriminating between a part of the trunk of the first tree and that of one of its generated offspring. As the first tree was not the result of a gradual process of lignification and the first bone was not the consequence of the presently observed process of ossification, so the first primitive rocks of the earth were not the product of precipitation or fusion and crystallisation, as the physical phenomena alone would suggest to the observer.

This reasoning, said Penn, applied equally to the two varieties of Mineral Geology: neptunian Wernerian or vulcanian Huttonian. The correspondence and correlation of the three subjects, are pointed out by physical science itself in the passages which have just been quoted; for, natural history there points out the analogy of the wood in the vegetable structure, and mineralogy points out that of primordial rock in the mineral structure, with the bone in the animal structure. Solidity and consistency, therefore, are the common properties of all the three. And it will then necessarily follow; that primitive immediate crystallisation, can furnish no data for computing time, more than primitive immediate ossification, or primitive immediate lignification.

But to the anticipated objection of the old-earth geologists that this would implicate God in the wilful deception of human students of His creation, Penn replied, Those phenomena cannot mislead, deceive, or seduce any one, who faithfully and diligently exercises his moral and intellectual faculties by the rule which God has supplied for their governance; but, only those who neglect to exercise them by that rule.

For, those very faculties, while they direct us to infer universal first formation by the immediate act of God, caution us, at the same time, not to be misled by the phenomena which that act must necessarily have occasioned. They warn us, that all first formations of the material works of God, must have received a specific form of their substance, and therefore, must have exhibited to the visual sense specific characters, even at the moment when they were first called from non-existence into being.

Whether it were the first formed bird, or the first formed shrub on which that bird rested, or the first formed rock on which that shurb grew, each must have instantly exhibited sensible phenomena; the first, of ossification, the second, of lignification, and the third, of crystallisation.

Yet, the phenomena would not have been truly indicative of actual ossification and actual lignification in the two first cases; and therefore, they would not have been truly indicative of actual crystallisation in the last; that is to say, of those subjects having actually passed through any of these gradual processes. There is no possibility of escaping from the demonstrative power of this great principle, which extends itself, equally, to first formations in all the three kingdoms of terrestrial matter.

In the last two chapters of Part I, on the philosophical problems with Mineral Geology, Penn raised his objections to the idea that the omniscient and omnipotent God created an initially imperfect chaos, which with time and only by the laws of nature operating as they do now became ordered and perfectly suited to life, especially man.

First, such reasoning could not be applied to the first creations in the other two kingdoms of matter, plant and animal. God would have created perfect bone, perfect wood, so also a perfect rock. Not even the tender condition of nascent plants or animals under the present laws of generation was imperfect, but was a part of the sequence begun at the first perfect creation. Since the primitive granite rocks had never been observed in the process of forming, Mineral Geology was involved in very unsound philosophical reasoning to assume either an aqueous or volcanic cause.

Though most Mineral Geologists at the time would have assumed an intelligent First Cause for the initial unordered matter, they attributed the present ordered state to time and the laws of nature. But God did not need vast ages to create the world. Therefore Mineral Geology impugned the character of God. To assume arbitrarily, a priori, that God created the matter of this globe in the most imperfect state to which the gross imagination of man can contrive to reduce it, which it effectually does, by reducing the creative Fiat to the mere production of an amorphous elementary mass; and then to pretend, that His intelligence and wisdom are to be collected from certain hypothetical occult laws, by which that mass worked itself into perfection of figure and arrangement after innumerable ages; would tend to lessen our sense either of the divine wisdom or power, did not the supposition recoil with tremendous reaction upon the supposers, and convict them of the clumsiest irrationality.

The supposition, is totally arbitrary; and not only arbitrary, viciously arbitrary; because, it is totally unnecessary, and therefore betrays a vice of choice. For, the laws of matter could not have worked perfection in the mass which the Creator is thus supposed to have formed imperfect, unless by a power imparted by Himself who established the laws. And, if He could thus produce perfection mediately, through their operation, He could produce it immediately, without their operation.

Why, then, wantonly and viciously, without a pretence of authority, choose the supposition of their mediation? It is entirely a decision of choice and preference, that is, of the will; for, the reason is no party in it, neither urging, suggesting, encouraging, or in any way aiding or abetting the decision, but, on the contrary, positively denying and condemning it. In all three kingdoms of matter, the original creation was a perfect, immediate and humanly incomprehensible work of God.

This conclusion about the initial creation, Penn contended, was philosophically consistent with Newton and was based on the divine revelation about the history of the early earth, which was relevant to the discussion because geology was a historical science. In the second half of Volume I then, Penn proceeded to expound the mode of first formations of the earth according to the Mosaical Geology, laid out in Genesis. To that argument we now turn. He began by reaffirming the fundamental principle, consistent with Bacon and Newton, that the mode of the first formations in the three kingdoms of plants, animals and minerals was by intelligent immediate acts of the Creator, which were antecedent to the laws of nature, which He set in operation for the perpetuation of the creation.

And he reaffirmed the Genesis record as a reliable divine testimony of those historic events. Penn concluded that the only reason Faber adopted this impossible interpretation was because of the pressure of old-earth geological theories. The sun, moon, planets and stars were also created on Day 1. Thus the newly created earth was radically modified before the first plants were made instantly and perfectly formed in a mature condition later on Day 3. Penn devoted a number of pages to explaining, on the basis of our knowledge of the solar and lunar movements, that the moon was created on the first day in the position of the new moon so that on the fourth day of creation it would be in the right place in the sky to rule the night as it was ordained.

He also argued that it was unphilosophical to assign a different cause to the light of the first three days, than that causing light on the earth from Day 4 onwards: this then was another reason for saying the sun was created on Day 1. Curiously, in his detailed analysis he did not discuss Genesis at all, which other Scriptural geologists and most commentators at the time took to mean that God had actually made the sun, moon and stars on the fourth day. The chapters on Day 5 and 6 were brief. Penn emphasised that the various marine, winged and land creatures were made in fully mature form, just as the first formations of the vegetable and mineral kingdoms had been.

He also remarked on the issue of time and calendars, with a rejection of the Julian day count developed in the sixteenth century by Scaligier. Penn argued that since he had established in Volume I the validity of the Mosaical Geology and invalidity of the Mineral Geology with respect to first formations, it was also philsophically sound to compare these two geologies to the rest of the geological features of the earth to determine which theoretical framework best fits the actual observations of the earth.

Penn first began with a biblical argument that the Flood was universal, violently destroying the surface of the whole earth, not just mankind living on it. As the first revolution on Day 3 of Creation Week suddenly produced the first habitation for man, so the second revolution suddenly resulted in a new earth. To accomplish this destruction and renovation God resumed immediate creation-type operations in the world, that is, the laws of nature that commenced operation on Day 7 were to some extent suspended or altered temporarily during the year of the Flood.

As in the first revolution on Day 3, God used global volcanic and earthquake activity which in the Flood was also abetted by winds and 40 days of rains to cause the eruption of violent inundations. The ocean transgressed the land by the gradual sinking over the course of five months of the pre-Flood continent. During this process, the sea was violently agitated until no land remained to cause the flux and reflux of the waters. Similarly, as the continent progressively subsided, the pre-Flood seabed was raised to become the new land. Generally, the present continents should indicate that they had been under the ocean for a long time roughly 1, years and that those waters were removed from the earth at the time assigned by Moses for the Flood.

Relying on the descriptions of geological phenomena given by the leading authorities, he sought to demonstrate how the four divisions of the geological record corresponded to the biblical history. The primary geological formations were created instantly on the first day of creation.


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The transitional formations were primarily the product of the first revolution, which suddenly occurred on Day 3.