We are honored to join her on her journey. She has 14 years of experience and has read 32 Young Adult Literature books this year, working hard to know the literature that will reach all of her students. In the last three years her professional development has been centered on teaching long-term English Language Learners about the power of reading and the development of their academic English. As a language arts teacher I believe it is my job to get students to love reading.
Kalysta considers herself a reading warrior. She begins the school year with empty classroom library shelves. During the first few weeks of school, students unwrap series and genre collections and add them to the classroom library. We celebrate characters, new series, new additions to the library.
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We celebrate finding a new favorite author, discovering a new favorite genre, or finishing a first chapter book. She led her department to start a Reading Empathy Initiative. Julianne has created reading lists for students and teachers at her school, designed a summer reading program, and brought such passion to her department that the school library circulation has more than doubled.
Julianne reads professional literature extensively, challenging herself to improve her understanding of both the content she teachers and imagining new possibilities and the teenagers she is devoted to. Sara Marin is deeply committed to her ninth grade students in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. Students read every day, lead book talks, and she confers with students every day to encourage, challenge, and teach strategies so that they can more deeply engage with their reading.
She has created a culture where reading is a priority in an urban charter school with no library and no librarian. We know Oklahoma teachers need resources, and we are proud to support Sara. Malissa Martin taught sixth grade for 19 years and is currently teaching 3rd grade at the Armstrong Elementary school in Conroe, Texas. Malissa regularly participates in Twitter chats, reads the Nerdy Book Club blog, and also joins TitleTalk each month to stay up-to-date on books.
Malissa helps her students live a reader-ly life by introducing them to series and authors they might love, encouraging them to find answers to their wonderings in nonfiction books, and facilitating conversations with other like-minded readers and giving book talks. Melissa believes that she has not done her job unless she has grown readers that will continue to read after they have left her classroom. We agree. Caitlin McClure surrounds her students with books.
She is a National Board Certified middle school English teacher in Louisville, Kentucky who works with her colleagues to ensure their high-poverty school is a place where reading and readers are valued and celebrated. Caitlin has a deep knowledge of Young Adult Literature and works hard to match students to titles that represent not only who they are and where they come from, but also help them imagine other possibilities. She is part of a teacher-led leadership group focused on action research in the classroom, and we are confident that her leadership will move our profession forward.
Kate McKinnon teaches high school in a rural school in Martensville, Saskatchewan. She is already a mentor to others in her district, showing teachers how she uses mentor texts and writing notebooks to deepen thinking with her English, History, Health, and Drama students in grades Our board was impressed with not only her passion and commitment to engaging all students in reading, but her willingness to lead locally, regionally, and nationally across content areas.
Kim Minugh is a high school English teacher in Sacramento, California, who understands the complex challenges of the immigrants and refugees in her community. She is devoted to supporting her diverse students emotionally, intellectually and socially. Over the course of the study she video recorded hundreds of her lessons, and critically analyzed her own pedagogy and provided feedback. Cassie Owens-Moore told a story of personal transformation. She has re-dedicated herself to the work of building authentic reading lives with her students at her middle school in Seneca, South Carolina.
She has 25 diverse students who come in for a breakfast book club. Cassie uses her blog and social media to recommend books to colleagues and continues to attend professional development at Furman University. The media specialist at her school describes her as a person who is genuinely devoted to helping her young students develop reading lives that matter to them. We believe her. Charles is an inspiration. Kristina Moore is a high school teacher and media specialist in Clarion, Iowa.
She is a voracious reader books and articles in the last year in just her second year of teaching. She has extended her reach to middle school teachers in her district to help redesign curriculum in order to foster a love of reading. Kristina reminds us that teachers with a mission are warriors in our work. Nothing stops them. Stacey Reece is a high school teacher in Knoxville, Tennessee who is driven to have representation of every student she teaches in her classroom library.
It is a collaborative project with a University of Tennessee professor and college students, librarians, teachers, and administrators in her school district. She is respected in her school as much for her kindness and compassion as for her skills as a teacher. I will forever be grateful for the positive environment she has created.
Rebecca Riggs is a high school teacher in Houston, Texas. She is just completing her first year of teaching, but pursues professional learning through the Cult of Pedagogy podcast, observing her colleagues, and has already read six professional books by leaders in the field of teaching English. She has compiled books for her classroom library, and said the first book she would buy with this grant is Brown Girl Dreaming by Jacqueline Woodson. If you follow the Book Love Foundation summer book club for teachers, you know how much this book means to us.
She collaborates with colleagues to adopt independent reading built on student choice into all English courses at her school. Rebecca Rufener is a year veteran high school English teacher in Chapman, Kansas. Through participating in both KATE and NCTE she reimagined the teaching of English around standards-based teaching and the power of student choice in engagement and growth.
She has books in her library, and has read almost all of them. She has books, mostly purchased at her own expense. We know Allison would keep building her library even without our support, but she has great ideas about how to spend the money. Allison is an active blogger who shows a wide familiarity with award-winning Young Adult fiction as well as adult and Young Adult non-fiction. The more books I have in my classroom—books that are both windows and mirrors—the more voice and power my students have. Bonnie Smith teaches middle and high school students in Durand, Illinois.
She has been inspiring readers for ten years and said her classroom library has helped her students become more empathetic and open-minded. When she began shifting her teaching to engage more readers she collected data on progress and attitudes of her young students. We were impressed with her passion for spoken word poetry and publications like Rethinking Schools. She sees reading as a place where students can find solace in the struggles and triumphs of others.
In the last seven years she has built a large classroom library of donated titles, many in poor condition.
Her passion for social justice has led her to examine her own racial identity and to understand how media shapes our perceptions of individuals and groups of people. We are proud to welcome Emily to our Book Love Foundation family and help fill her classroom with current books.
For me, reading is an essential part of finding that power. Her students made speeches and organized a walkout because they were already deeply engaged and informed about the issue. Carrie has demonstrated the commitment to regular independent reading and conferring, even with students who need her guidance. Carrie calls herself a book matchmaker and hopes this grant can help her purchase books by authors of color, books with non-binary characters and books with creepy plots.
Chelsea Accursi-Thornton is an English teacher at a continuation high school in Yuba City where students are trying to finish a high school diploma. Because it means investing in at-risk and disengaged students. It means putting books in the hands of those who need them most. In the case of Les Trois Chemins it might be noticed as well that the multilinearity is produced not on the page, but in the space created on the double page. The possibility of easily locating images in various directions is perhaps one of the great differences between reading a conventional text and reading comics.
It is important to remark that peripheral vision plays a role not only within experimental or avant-garde work, but in all comics. This coexistence is, in fact, one of the main characteristics of the medium:. Images in print do not chase each other in the same way as scrolling on-screen images: they stay put, remain available, can be checked, compared and returned to multiple times. This is one of the greatest riches of comics: the almost instant accessibility of each of the moments that make them up Groensteen This foundational characteristic of the medium is often used by authors, who employ various images created to be compared.
These connections can appear both at the level of the page or the double page spread.
Beyond Linearity: Holistic, Multidirectional, Multilinear and Translinear Reading in Comics
Some authors might create some sort of cohesion on the spread the same scene or temporality, for instance , while others do not give importance to this unit and focus instead on the single page or even smaller units, such as the strip. In any case, when dealing with the codex format, the reader always faces except for the first page the double page spread. As Spencer Millidge reminds us,.
The eye immediately takes in the whole page—or the whole spread—at once, so it should always be designed with that in mind. There is no way that the artist can physically prevent the reader from looking or glancing at the last panel before the first; but the reader has a tacit agreement with the creator to read the page in order.
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Even so, any big change of scene, new chapter, surprise panel, or dramatic moment is usually placed after the turn of the page Spencer Millidge We see again the key role that peripheral vision plays in processing comics. There is no doubt that a tacit agreement between the author and the reader exists. However, as previously mentioned, the eye tends to wander, which can be very challenging for the reader.
In strips or one-page stories, for instance, the reader might involuntarily see visual information from the last image, which could spoil a dramatic end or a final gag. The book as a vehicle has tended to be the container for a discourse where the story progresses linearly parallel to the succession of pages that inevitably move forward towards the last page.
This is of course a possible way of reading a book, and one that was encouraged by the development of narrative fiction in the eighteenth century. Notwithstanding this undeniable influence of the codex in the linear discourse of comics, the codex can obviously generate other forms of reading. This is another essential difference from purely textual reading. A comic contained in a book is easy to glance through; when allowed, readers often do this to get an impression of what they will find art style, page layout, etc.
As other critics have shown, readers always have a holistic vision at their disposal: they have the ability of seeing past, present and future simultaneously on the page. Captain Atom, a character from Pax Americana one of the self-conclusive issues of the series The Multiversity , published in , makes use of a comic book to show this ability. Manhattan, with whom he shares his simultaneous vision of present, past and future Figure 5. Pax Americana , , page detail.
Captain Atom is both looking directly at the characters of the story and at the readers, who are handling the comic book itself. The character is also reflecting on the reading of the work itself: the time of discourse is altered and does not follow a chronological order, so the reader is forced to go back and forth to understand the events that take place.
Therefore, the visual rhymes we mentioned before do not have to be limited to the level of the page or the double page. Indeed, some authors seek to establish connections between different pages; these visual correspondences can appear both on the same site of the page or on a different one. Braiding can then be applied to all the codex and generates a reading that moves further from conventional linearity: a translinear reading.
We find an example of this kind of reading in the graphic novel Asterios Polyp Images representing this space from the same perspective are repeated several times throughout the work and act as a symbolic frame of important moments of the storyline. Thus, the first of these images shows the disorder and neglect of the apartment, a reflection of the traumatic separation of Asterios and Hana. The same space is shown four more times during different moments of the storyline, creating a sort of internal sequence within the graphic novel.
In this manner, Mazzucchelli invites us to compare the panels, to find similarities and differences in a non-juxtaposed, translinear sequence. This non-linear way of using the form of the codex is appearing more frequently in works published within the last ten years. The several recurring characters, narrative lines and visual correspondences that are present in the graphic novel do favour a reading of the codex in a non-linear way, flipping through the pages.
One Soul , by Ray Fawkes, uses an apparently simple nine-panel grid, but also deviates from linearity. This graphic novel employs the double page to create a macrospace of 18 identical panels recreating the lives of 18 characters in different historical periods. Each panel follows the story of a single character, turning black for the remaining pages of the book when he or she dies and being occupied only by text, a sort of monologue of the soul. Therefore, the reader of One Soul can complete one story through the pages or process them all at the same time or any combination of these two options ; in any case, it is probable that the reader will flip forwards or backwards through the book to connect these stories.
Finally, it should be remarked that the codex itself as a format is being questioned as a narrative vehicle for comics, with clear repercussions for the way in which it is read or engaged with. These and many other works emphasize the materiality of comics and push the medium to its limits. The new emphasis on materiality curiously coincides with the rise of digital comics and webcomics.
This article has explored how comics, despite inheriting a linear discourse from the codex, offer other types of readings. First, the page or the double page allows for a holistic reading that takes the space as a whole, even in more traditional grids. Second, the panels can be read in various directions multidirectional reading and can also generate more than one story line taking place simultaneously on the page multilinear reading.
It should not be forgotten, then, that both the page and the book as a form in the medium of comics do not necessarily foster a linear and conventional reading, as images in comics can be easily connected throughout the pages translinear reading. Finally, some comics have proposed other formats including digital beyond the page and the book, both undermining the traditional book format and, paradoxically, connecting somehow to a lost attention to its materiality.
In any case, it could be said that the materiality of the codex in the discourse of comics, both in conjunction with and opposed to digital technology and new media, still proves to be surprisingly relevant for comics studies. The adaptation to the western reading direction creates some problems see de la Iglesia and nowadays, also due to cheaper editorial costs, most manga are published in their original reading direction and orientation, usually including reading instructions for readers not familiar with the convention. Arredondo, S. University of Granada. Baraou, A and Sardon, V. Bartual, M.
The Autonomous University of Madrid. Chavanne, R. Chute, H. Graphic Narrative. New York: Routledge. Cohn, N. The visual language of comics. Introduction to the structure and cognition of sequential images. New York: Bloomsbury. Applied Cognitive Psychology , — Dagenais, J. Decolonizing the Medieval Page.
In: Stoicheff, P and Taylor, A eds. Toronto: Toronto University Press. Drucker, J. What is graphic about graphic novels?
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English Language Notes , 46 2 : 39— Fawkes, R. One Soul. Portland: Oni Press.
Fresnault-Deruelle, P. Communications , Issue 24, 7— Les Trois Chemins.
day 137: “devotionals”–read aloud “faith” books for six to ten year olds
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