North of Fifty-Three Bertrand W. Sages and Heroes of the American Revolution L. Carroll Judson. Derived Forms reflectional or reflexional , adjective.
The act of reflecting or the state of being reflected. Something, such as light, radiant heat, sound, or an image, that is reflected. The folding of a membrane from the wall of a cavity over an organ and back to the wall. The folds so made.
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Mental concentration; careful consideration. A thought or an opinion resulting from such consideration. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company.
The change in direction of a wave, such as a light or sound wave, away from a boundary the wave encounters. When light reflects off a material denser with higher refractive index than the external medium, it undergoes a phase inversion. In contrast, a less dense, lower refractive index material will reflect light in phase. This is an important principle in the field of thin-film optics. Specular reflection forms images. Reflection from a flat surface forms a mirror image , which appears to be reversed from left to right because we compare the image we see to what we would see if we were rotated into the position of the image.
Specular reflection at a curved surface forms an image which may be magnified or demagnified; curved mirrors have optical power. Such mirrors may have surfaces that are spherical or parabolic. If the reflecting surface is very smooth, the reflection of light that occurs is called specular or regular reflection.
The laws of reflection are as follows:. These three laws can all be derived from the Fresnel equations. In classical electrodynamics , light is considered as an electromagnetic wave, which is described by Maxwell's equations. Light waves incident on a material induce small oscillations of polarisation in the individual atoms or oscillation of electrons, in metals , causing each particle to radiate a small secondary wave in all directions, like a dipole antenna.
All these waves add up to give specular reflection and refraction, according to the Huygens—Fresnel principle. In the case of dielectrics such as glass, the electric field of the light acts on the electrons in the material, and the moving electrons generate fields and become new radiators. The refracted light in the glass is the combination of the forward radiation of the electrons and the incident light. The reflected light is the combination of the backward radiation of all of the electrons.
In metals, electrons with no binding energy are called free electrons. Light—matter interaction in terms of photons is a topic of quantum electrodynamics , and is described in detail by Richard Feynman in his popular book QED: The Strange Theory of Light and Matter. When light strikes the surface of a non-metallic material it bounces off in all directions due to multiple reflections by the microscopic irregularities inside the material e.
Thus, an 'image' is not formed. This is called diffuse reflection. The exact form of the reflection depends on the structure of the material. One common model for diffuse reflection is Lambertian reflectance , in which the light is reflected with equal luminance in photometry or radiance in radiometry in all directions, as defined by Lambert's cosine law.
The light sent to our eyes by most of the objects we see is due to diffuse reflection from their surface, so that this is our primary mechanism of physical observation.
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Some surfaces exhibit retroreflection. The structure of these surfaces is such that light is returned in the direction from which it came. When flying over clouds illuminated by sunlight the region seen around the aircraft's shadow will appear brighter, and a similar effect may be seen from dew on grass. This partial retro-reflection is created by the refractive properties of the curved droplet's surface and reflective properties at the backside of the droplet.
Some animals' retinas act as retroreflectors see tapetum lucidum for more detail , as this effectively improves the animals' night vision. Since the lenses of their eyes modify reciprocally the paths of the incoming and outgoing light the effect is that the eyes act as a strong retroreflector, sometimes seen at night when walking in wildlands with a flashlight.
A simple retroreflector can be made by placing three ordinary mirrors mutually perpendicular to one another a corner reflector.
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The image produced is the inverse of one produced by a single mirror. A surface can be made partially retroreflective by depositing a layer of tiny refractive spheres on it or by creating small pyramid like structures. In both cases internal reflection causes the light to be reflected back to where it originated. Our experienced marketing team combine website optimization with social media, content marketing, and paid search advertising. We translate the core principles of your company into a strong, emotional brand identity.
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