Walterus de Hoton frussavit in Hoton post ultimam regardam duas partes unius acre de bruere. The abbot and Convent of Dieulacres ap- proved acres of waste land in Rudheath. The justices endeavoured to override the ancient customs of the forests. Pro- tests from the men of the forests make no reference, of course, to such a motive, but simply state the ancient rights of dwellers in the forests and beg that their usages may be tested and their charters inspected.
Long lists of grievances were forwarded to the Black Prince, covering the whole field of forest administration and contrasting es- tablished customs with the practices it was now sought to impose. The keeping of greyhounds, the digging of turves, the carrying of bows, the pannage of swine, the taking of housebote and haybote, the lawing of dogs, common of pasture — on all these subjects the people were ag- grieved. This was the situation in May, How far the justice and chamberlain succeeded in appeasing the men of the forests it is difficult , , No regard was made in [Chamber.
The Accounts for , , , bear no reference to a regard, and Dr. Cox states that no pleas of the forest had been held for over twenty years. From Chester a fine of ;f was to be obtained and pressure was brought to bear on the citizens to pay the sum in as few years as possible. The nature of the fines and the purpose of the proceeding may be inferred from the letter forwarded to the justice and chamberlain. That the continued pur- suit of such a policy in a region so turbulent as Cheshire should lead to an outbreak of violence, was natural enough. In many parts of Eng- land shortage of food and the attempt to regulate wages had caused discontent.
To these grievances were added in Cheshire the heavy fines made before the justices and the infringement of ancient customs. The prince had accepted the fine and granted a respite of the eyre for thirty years. The proceedings were protracted and it was necessary to protect the justices. The Black Prince, the duke of Lancaster, and the earls of Warwick and of Stafford therefore marched into the county with their men. Against this display of force the men of Cheshire were powerless.
Considerable difficulties faced the justice and chamberlain in any effort to secure payment. A second time the fine was accepted, and when the whole affair appeared to be closed, the justices sat again and seized lands and tenements and levied very many big fines. The abbot of Chester John de Strafford. Robert de Legh. Earl of Salisbury Thomas Fitton. This young prince was continually in need of money. His elaborate jousts, his magnificent hospitality, his numerous gifts augmented a burden of debt the weight of which fell very heavily on Cheshire.
II, A further instalment was paid the following year. The city of Chester made a fine of marks. The remaining instalments may have been paid, but the last Chamber. Letters Close of ordered the levying of the fine, and its appropriation to the building expenses of Vale Royal Abbey. But the aspect which is of immediate importance is the effect of such a policy on the agricultural progress of the county.
Not only were enterprising cultivators, both great and small, mercilesslv im- poverished. The whole work of reclaiming the waste was vexatiously hampered. When, after a lapse of several generations, peace had at last afforded opportunities for an advance, the men who had made headway were penalised by a prince who disregarded both the past and the future, and cared only for the satisfaction of his immediate whims.
Nevertheless, progress had been made. The plough had been pressed forward into the waste and many tracts of various sizes had been added to the cultivated area. Nor was the work confined to the heaths and uplands. But the system was extended. In , for example, the lessees of the manor of Frod- sham undertook the construction of a dike, 84 perches in length for the protection of certain lands which were liable to inundation. The Black Prince directed his commissioners to have the stoppage removed and to facilitate the flow of water down to the Mersey.
The necessary timber was to be taken from Delamere forest, and since the dike was nearer to Ince than those mentioned above, the abbot of Chester was to be distrained to pay half the costs of the im- mediate repairs and of the future maintenance. The region, though potentially fertile, could not yet be highly productive.
The natives de- light in milk and butter ; the richer people live on flesh, and think much of bread made of barley and wheat. Living at Chester in the fourteenth century, he had opportunities for observation, but he could not write of Chester without lavish praises. That cattle were fairly numerous is probable. In the account of the bailiff of Frodsham is an entry of 37s. Liber Luciani, THE LAND 21 wars, and was a prominent feature in the port of Chester during the first quarter of the fourteenth centuryd Increased productivity was, therefore, very desirable and one early effort to this end deserves mention.
For several centuries marl was used extensively as a fertiliser in many counties. The number of these pools caused Leland to speculate on their origin. For the sandy ground of sum partes. This is for those Countries an excellent manure, and though it be exceeding chargeable, yet through good neighbour-hood it quiteth the cost ; for if you manure your groundes once in seaven or twelve yeares it is sufficient, and look how many yeares he bearethe Come, so many he will beare grasse, and that plenty. The following marks of a marlpit may, however, be noted : a it may be quite unrelated to drainage lines whereas pools or ponds lie in natural depressions ; b the bank is usually steep at one end and gently shelved at the other, in order that loaded carts may be drawn out ; c two or three sheets of water closely adjoining, or merged into one, often indicate marlpits.
The marl has been dug out from one pit in one year, and when marling-time arrived in the next y-ear, the pit has been filled with water, and it was necessary to start digging afresh. Skeat — English Dialect Society , The editor explains introd. Ancient Deeds, VI, c. Prothero, English Farming Past and Present, lo. The earliest reference given by Thorold Rogers is Agriculture, II, It is in the western rather than the eastern part of the county that the practice was most widespread, but the geological formation of the region is such that marl may be found in many districts.
The " Forest Proceedings " of the period reveal a scene of strenuous activity in Wirral where scores of marlpits were dug in the reign of Edward I alone. At each regard of the forests, the digging of numbers of new pits is re- ported. In short, reclamation and fertilisation are proceeding concurrently, and the latter is being effected by individuals, by communities, by a great monastic corpora- tion. The abbots, who widened the bounds of their estates so continuously, used marl on a large scale. In the regard of 16 Edward I, abbot Simon is found to have made a marlpit in Irby, two at Plumyards and two large ones at Bromborough heath since the last regard was held.
Some of these are the same as those already mentioned. The abbot stated that these approvements had been made during the abbacy of his predecessor viz. This is the earliest reference I have found. A large number of marlpits are mentioned in this roll ; and a number of others in Roll No. Thorold Rogers collected statistics from the 3Iidlands and south of England, which point to an average cost of 3s. The location of some of these marlpits is interesting. The material was heavy and the first consideration was to shorten the distance for haulage.
Where marl was abundant there was a tendency to multi- ply the number of pits to the danger of human beings or the beasts of the forest. In the instance already quoted at Willaston, where seven pits were said to be dangerous, the men of that vill were in mercy and had to fill up the pits at their own co. Once excavated, a pit tends to fill with water and remain a permanently fixed mark in the land- scape.
This quality of permanence renders it a convenient point of reference. Further, the pit is dug, not in the cultivated land near the village, but in the waste, where well-defined permanent marks are few. Agriculture, I, See also ibid. Another example occurs in Roll, i, m. The surface is defaced and the name illegible, but it is clear that the pit must be filled — " obstupari oportet.
Ancient Deeds, VI, x, In agricul- tural development, the region was backward, but it was not unfertile, nor was the value of land low. Indeed, statistics tend to show that the value of land in Cheshire was higher than in neighbouring counties. Statements of value are not lacking, but it is necessary to make allowance for the circumstances under which they were drawn up.
Further, many statements do not distinguish between arable land and pasture. INIore- over, the units of measurement were variable, the size of the acre in particular being obscure. Meadow land was the most valuable but the valuable areas were very limited. The tables given below may be compared with a table in V. Derbyshire, II, Beamont, Halton and Norton, Finally, in some instances, land designated as waste was rented. De Lacy Compoti, Book, 92, 94, 95, 96, Book, , 1 The development of the agricultural resources of the county lay in the hands of a number of lords, the more important of whom must be mentioned, 1 before we consider the larger aspects of agriculture.
The estates of the earl of Chester were considerable, but they were not the greatest in the county. Darnhall, Over, Weaverham and Frodsham, four valuable manors on the left bank of the Weaver, had belonged to the earldom since the Conquest. The Cheshire manors were, of course, only a part of the lands which belonged to the duchy of Lancaster. It is merely necessary to mention such names as shall render the remainder of the work intelligible. Armitage-Smith, John of Gaunt London, , By the fourteenth century, several of the baronies created in the Norman period had been, or were being, broken up.
In time of war, they are ab- sent in France for long periods and rank among the most noteworthy warriors of their day. In times of peace they reside at their manors and turn their energies to the development of their lands. Monastic estates in the county were extensive. The abbey of St. Werburgh at Chester, the oldest and largest of the religious houses, was also the most wealthy.
To this nucleus was added in the succeeding centuries a large number of donations of lands and mills as well as various rights and immunities, and certain houses in the city, and saltpans in the Wiches. Roll, Temp. Combermere lies almost on the boundary which divided Salop from the earldom of Chester.
Its possessions lay on both sides of the boundary and formed a compact area of two or three square miles in South Cheshire with a number of smaller areas in North Salop. On the Cheshire side lay the manors of Chesthull and Hull, the manor of Wilkesley and the vills of Royal and Lodmore and the land of Burley, while the most im- portant possession south of the boundary was the manor of Drayton acquired by purchase from the monastery of St. It had, however, temporal possessions in Runcorn, in Norton and in Stanney adjoining the lands of the abbot of Stanlawe. It had also some smaller outlying property and the manor of Gayton in Wirral which was subsequently exchanged for Marton near the abbey.
The priory of St. Mary Chester had land at Walrescot in Delamere forest. By no means all of the lands indicated were cultivated or managed by the proprietors mentioned. Large areas of the estates, both of lay lords and ecclesiastics, were let to lesser men, and in some instances wealthy lay lords were tenants of the monasteries. A large part of the great manor of Weaverham, for example, was held by lay lords who did homage to the abbot of Vale Royal for their respective tenements : the Grosvenors for Lostock, the Swettenhams for Swettenham, and the Duttons for six oxgangs of land in Dutton.
History of Market Drayton London, i86i , 17, Hulton, 4 vols. The temporalities are summarised in Valor Ecclesiasticus, V, Book, 58, , The larger problems of estate management in these instances, therefore, were transferred to a distant body. It would, however, be erroneous to infer that the system of conciliar management was less competent than a purely local management would have been.
The most detailed evidence of the system by which the Black Prince and his council directed the administration of the Cheshire estates is found in the despatches which passed from the council to the justice and chamberlain. If a more cautious note appears, it is only in order that the prince may profit.
If a measure of discretion is allowed to the chamberlain, its purpose and limits are defined. The dominant consideration was the maintenance of a large and steady revenue. We shall see later that he also directed the transfer of stock from one manor to another, his intention probably being to make use of the various advantages offered by the different manors. Concerning the administration of the Cheshire estates of the earl- dom and later duchy of Lancaster evidence is less detailed. Since I have used it freely in other chapters, pp.
They formed but a small fraction of the Lancastrian estates and it is not possible to trace the system of management in the same detail as we traced that employed by the Black Prince. Over the whole of the estates the council of John of Gaunt maintained a general supervision, but it also employed a chief seneschal for each group. In the northern counties this office was held by William Nesfeld, a highly paid minister, who was allowed to reside at Knaresborough Castle. The estates under his charge were much greater and much more widely scattered.
On the other hand, he appears to have had no judicial or political responsibilities. Monastic granges were fairly numerous. Lyons , C. Armitage Smith, 2 vols. Chester Chartulary , passim. Both are near Nantwich. Lee, History of Market Drayton, Probably the best indication of size and value is to be seen in a statement concerning the Vale Royal granges made before royal commissioners in : — - Grange of Conwardsley — 2 Carucates. Grange of Beaurepair or Knights- 3 Carucates.
Werburgh's Abbey Chester were greater than those of Vale Royal. Having already touched upon the larger aspects of reclamation, fertility and the value of the land, we must now deal with its productions. In treating some aspects, we shall endeavour to make a general survey ; with others it will be desirable to treat certain manors at some length, rather than attempt to generalise from insufficient evidence. Book, passim. The modern Ordnance maps show a place called Earnslow Grange north-west of the site of the abbey, but there is no reference to this in the V.
Book, or in Valor Ecclesiasticus. See also Dugdale, II, The bailiff of Drake- lowe was supplied with wheat for seed bought in Chester, and barley, beans and peas were purchased for seed for the same manor. The hay was then tossed and made, the expense being qd. The MS. Exivit a patria. This is one of the best rolls I have seen. The details are copious, the writing clear and the parchment excellently preserved. Two carts were used in Holpul meadow for the same period and five men made a stack there. The larger stack was thatched at a cost of 2s.
As for the remainder of the hay mown and made, it was all carried away by a gentle rising of the waters. Here, in one of the worst years of the fourteenth century, though the number of harvesters rose as high as 58 and averaged 40, the work dragged on for five weeks. Such a lengthy harvesting was probably unusual and the crops, when gathered, unusually poor. The normal crop, however, was prob- ably not of a high order. The region was too moist for profitable corn production. Villainage in England, , Number of Date. I Sept. In order to secure a suitable head of water, Earl Hugh Lupus had constructed a great causeway across the Dee, and then erected mills which were destined to rank among the most famous in the land.
Their main- tenance, their value and in some instances their location, figure pro- minently in contemporary records. Repairs are frequent and diverse. Flood or fire may damage a mill ; rneadows may be flooded by water from the mill pond,! Closely allied with the question of repairs and in many instances with location, was the provision of millstones. Since the red sandstone of Cheshire is too soft for grinding purposes, it must often have been necessary to seek supplies at some distance. Frodsham Chamber, Accis. Northwich ibid. Chester Chartulary, When Congleton mills were leased to three men for six years, it was agreed that the lord would provide wood and iron and the three farmers would find millstones.
Here the mills were let for the same period, the farmer maintaining them in everything except heavy timber and millstones. These rates were fixed or con- firmed by charters of the second half of the thirteenth century. Earlier charters had, however, allowed a heavier toll. At Stockport it was one-sixteenth, and in the great mills at Chester it was one-six- teenth. The two pairs bought by the bailiff of Cogshall [vide supra, 35 cost 42s.
Both Congleton and Halton belonged to the Duke of Lancaster. The account is for Edward III. Morris [Doc. The reeve of Eaton by Tarporley had quantities of wheat, peas, beans and draget ground at a cash price of 4d. It was against such malpractices that the citizens of Chester uttered a strong complaint in The millers, they stated, had levied evil customs and kept measures which were not fairly or reasonably made.
The quality of the harvest, the number of men who brought corn to grind, the amount of repairs necessary — these varied from year to year. Issues OF Mills. The mill had "stood in needs of repair for half a year. Farm or Rent of Mills. Other Statements. Darnhall H H 13 4 Extent The conditions on which they were held illustrate the military importance of the city.
In between the wars. The fishery was of small value in compari- son with the mills. See Table on p. It remains to give some more detailed description of the working of these important mills. Each of these takes toll, and each pays farm to the earl, but the farms have declined, that of the valetti, for example, which before the pestilence ante mortalitatem was eight shillings each per annum, is now only four shillings. The keeper answers for 72 quarters of corn received as issues of the mills for the year. This quantity he accounts for as follows : — 67 qrs. I bushel i peck have been sold at various prices ; 6 bushels are accounted for in small disposals described ; 4 qrs.
While Richard was in the king's service in Wales, heavy floods wrought serious damage to the mills, fishery and causey. County Court Rolls C. In his Chester in the Plantagenet and Tudor Periods, loi, Canon Morris printed a short extract from the foot of the account, describing the customs. He omitted, however, the whole of the figures for the year's working given above.
Yearly Value. Rolls , H 0 , for 3 years 0 0 Cal. Fine Rolls , - , for 12 years 0 0 Ibid. Issues of mills 3 1 ,, ,, Issues of fishery 9 18 6i , for 3 years. Michael which do not fall within the time of this account. I have repeated them. Of this quantity, 3 quarters are passed to the new keeper, and the remainder has been sold as follows : — Qrs.
To the new keeper he has handed 4 quarters i peck, and the remainder has been sold thus : — Qrs. These fundamental conditions were qualified by the circum- stances of the time. Along the borders of the Pennines, how'ever, the danger was not yet wholly passed. It is difficult to arrive at any con- clusion respecting the amount of cattle-raiding that took place in the march land during the years of strife which preceded the Edwardian settlement of Wales.
Lacking com- mand of the bridges at Chester and Holt, they were constantly at a disadvantage, and it is likely that serious raids by fords were few. Nevertheless, it is difficult to account for the sparseness both of popu- lation and of cattle in the Dee Valley, except on the hypothesis that the region was held to be unsafe for habitation. On the other hand, the settlement of North Wales led to a very close connection between Cheshire and the new county of Flintshire. We have already seen how the work of reclamation was governed, and in some instances hindered, by the customs and rules regulating the assarting of land in the forests.
Speight mentions rewards for slaying wolves in Wharfedale in Upper Wharfedale London, , There were also more obvious aspects in which forest rights affected the owners of cattle. A staff of foresters, verderers, regarders, agisters were on the look-out for trespasses of any kind. The cultivator who enclosed an area of land might, wittingly or unwittingty, act to the detriment of the deer. Trivial though such things may appear at first sight, they gave rise to vexatious interference. For escaping cattle the amercement was usually about id.
Finally the beasts of the forest were themselves a source of trouble. Some values for earlier years are found in V. Book, Appendix , , ; see also Recog. Rolls, , where a recognizance for 20s. Further instances are in County Ct. Rolls C. They are the first and almost the only figures given under this heading in the Chamber.
The question appears to have been raised in a petition to Earl Ranulf and rejected see Chester Chartulary, I, et seq. Ormerod cites a claim by the lord of Poulton Lancelyn [Cheshire, II, and a successful defence of the steward of the bishop of Lichfield, who was lord of the manor of Burton [ibid.
Pond density as a determinant of aquatic species richness in an urban landscape
There are complaints by the men of the forests respecting the lawing of their dogs in " T. In one respect, however, they aided it. The forests contained large numbers of oak-trees, the acorns from which afforded food for large numbers of pigs. Cheshire wool could only be shipped after a long land journey. The production of wool for the Flemish market could only be carried on, therefore, under a serious disadvantage. To sum up, on the one hand we have the lingering traces of wolves, the dangers of the march-land, the restrictions and disadvantages of the forest areas and the remoteness of a wool-exporting port.
None of these handicaps was peculiar to Cheshire, but there were few counties in which they all operated simultaneously. On the other hand, we have the fertility of well-watered pastures, and a great abundance of acorns. The resultant conditions proved favourable to cattle and pigs, but unfavourable to sheep. The fewness of sheep in the county is conspicuous. Stewart-Brown, The Disafforestation of Wirral, These are collected separately Chamber.
For the extent of the De Lacy estates, vide supra, Sheep do, however, appear to have been of some importance on the Combermere manors, for in when the abbot was in financial difficulties, he produced a royal confirmation of a charter by which it was declared that no bailiff or other minister should distrain him by his sheep for debt, so long as he had other goods or chattels by which he could be distrained.
It must, however, be made clear that w'hile the general circumstances point to a scarcity of sheep in the county as a whole, the absence of accounts of the management of monastic estates forbids any definite conclusion respecting the granges of the abbeys. On the estates of the laity also, in the first half of the four- teenth century, flocks seem to have been few, but here the evidence is clear and statistical. At Frodsham, for example, in , the bailiff accounts for only 15 sheep of which i had died of a murrain shortly after the shearing.
Robert, son of Thomas, the shepherd, forfeited his goods and chattels for the offence, but exactly how the fire arose the MS. The word used is bercaria, but the expense indicates that it must have been a substantial structure. Of these, the reeve explains, 15 were killed for consumption during the lord's stay at the manor in the autumn, 2 were killed for a love-bone in the autumn, 4 died of a murrain before the shearing, and 21 died after the shearing. Further he has paid 5s. In these accounts there is no mention of loss from strangulation by wolves, and it is probable that by the middle of the century the county was free from this menace.
Disease, however, was common, and as a remedy the bailiff or reeve resorted to tar and grease. At Frodsham in , 3s. In , when several were given to the abbot of Vale Royal, he valued them at is. The sheep were kept, of course, primarily for their wool, and receipts for sales of wool and skins are duly entered in the accounts. At Frod- sham 14 fleeces, weighing 2 stones in all — reckoning 12 lbs. Darnhall is a few miles from Vale Royal, whither the monks moved.
Giles paid 8o marks sterling on the day of the sale and promised to pay the remaining 28 marks on delivery. The abbot was to convey the wool to London at his own cost and risk. Such direct sales to the foreigner or his agent may have been common in the early part of our period.
Sacks per Annum. There is an entry for a place designated as Sestri, but Dr. Cunningham held that it was more probably Colchester than Chester [ibid. The houses at Birkenhead and Norton are omitted. Rolls, , , , , For the varied activities of William of Doncaster, vide infra, Within a few months, Robert de Ledsham was unable to discharge his duties. Staffordshire with sacks and Salop with sacks, would appear to have been far more important areas for wool production.
On the other hand, Lancashire is not mentioned at all, and the combined figure for Cambridgeshire, Huntingdon, Buckinghamshire and Bedfordshire is only sacks. In the following year the society of the Bardi were permitted to load sacks of wool in the port of London. Of these, 20 had been bought from Chester. In and certain Florentine merchants acknowledged large debts to Richard de Bradburn and Henry Toroid, citizens of Chester, probably for wool delivered in London. The quantities bought for the Italian merchants and for the king were conveyed to London, but other ports were sometimes used.
The dangers attending the transport of goods at that period are illustrated by the fate of his cargo. As the ship approached Flushing it was driven ashore by a storm. Local needs, therefore, whether for wool, hides or flesh were limited. The same consideration must be kept in mind as we turn to the C. Chancery Rolls — Welsh Rolls, They were relatively more numerous than the sheep, but the actual numbers are nowhere great. I of remainder, i of addition. I of remainder I remains.
Steers 2 yearlings of remainder 2 Yearlings 6 calves of remainder Calves 12 calves of the year, of which 2 in tithe and retithe Of these, 2 died. Of these, i died. This figure is, however, a permissible maximum, and in the absence of stock accounts of Chester Abbey, it is not possible to affirm that the abbot ever had such a number. The account has been condensed slightly. Except Master William of Harpesfeld, the men mentioned arc felons.
Of these 2 died Calves 2 calves female , half year old 2 remain Calves 3 calves born this year — and sold, and concerning 10 heifers joined with the cows above, he answers nothing, because none of them went to the bull. Drakelowe 2 Oxen. I of remainder, 3 bought, i received 5 Calves I born, 2 bought, i received. II Heifers 3 years old , 6 received 6 Heifers 2 years old , 12 received 12 Yearlings 8 received Stirks 21 of remainder, 16 by transfer, 8 received, I died and 21 are reckoned with the steers above Yearlings 34 yearlings, 53 by transfer, 15 received, 16 are reckoned with the steers, 21 with the heifers, 16 died This account has been condensed so as to give figures only, but some important details are given on p.
This account also has been reduced to the bare figures, but certain details are given below, pp. Steers and Heifers 3 heifers of remainder, and they are rec- koned with the cows above. Yearlings II of remainder ; 2 killed 9 Calves 26 born. Stocks as large, or indeed considerably larger, were maintained in other counties both by lay lords and by monastic corporations. Even in Lancashire, larger herds were supported on the Lacy estates. That some, judged by their sale price, were poor, is clear.
These things are not remarkable in mediaeval agriculture. Their positions may be roughly described by reference to an obtuse-angled triangle. From Frodsham the distance to Shotwick via Chester is about 16 miles ; to Macclesfield about 30 miles ; while the longer side Shotwick to Macclesfield is rather more than 40 miles.
The fourth manor, Drake- lowe, lies a little south of this longer side, being about 15 miles distant from Macclesfield and the same distance from Frodsham. His authority extended to the purchase and sale of cattle, and he appears to have bought cattle himself and forwarded them to the various manors. It is doubtful whether this authority is explicitly defined in the letters appointing any chamberlain to his office. It is likely that in the earlier part of our period, his authority was more limited, but in the later part, his power is undoubted.
For Macclesfield differed from the other manors in that it was pri- marily a stud farm. Here, some feet above sea level, lay the manor hall, surrounded by a great barricade. The manor was not only a breeding place for cattle. Other repairs at the manor are noted, ibid. In the stock- keeper accounted- for: — 6 oxen received from the Chamberlain. Chamberlain, grave of Frodsham. The view is not impossible, but it must be considered in the light of further evidence.
The density of ponds in the landscape can clearly been seen to be a major contributing factor to the richness. Species richness for both groups was highest in t he densest. The apparent connection between botanical richness and dissolved oxygen reflects the observatio n. The higher oxygen prod uction, therefore, p robably results not from species richness but from the qua ntity. The impact of pond de nsity on the species rich ness of a pond depends on the scale at which that density is. Pond density has its largest effect at the large st landscap e scale.
In this section
This would indicate that the d ensity. For aquatic invertebrates the major. For aquatic plants this was still true,. This reflects the varying dispersal. From the management perspective the distances between p onds in a network depend. Linton and Goulder observed from a study of. This study not only found that the. While the species richness of the po nds in the New Town was h igher, the assemblages of species for b oth. T his is potentially due. In Halton the highest densities of ponds ar e found in the New Town areas and are associated with the gre ater.
However, since the proportion of soft space did not em erge as a significant. Rather it may be the prec ise nature and composition of that. In addition, po nd isolation. T he most isolated po nds from the Lo wland Pond Survey dataset. The richness of aquat ic invertebrates and macrophytes were positively related: invertebrate communities. Furthermore this relationship was much s tronger. This would seem to. Briers and Briggs working at large spatial scales 60 x 60 km square in. Oxfordshire, England found evidence for spatial autocorre lation of invertebrate communities over distances of.
The study also showed that, within the same sample of ponds, at the local scale similarity of. While factors such as water chemistry, a quatic vegetation structure and shade may determine the precise. Ponds a re by their nature fragmented habitats i. Urban habitats in.
Many pond species have, developed strategies. The implications for the planning and de sign of urban areas are. National Amphibian Survey Swan and Oldham r ecommended a minimum of 2 ponds per km. Bullock et al. Extrapolating from the. Finding space for such a number of ponds in ever more d ensely developed urban areas may b e pro blematic. However, the current paper has take n into account the distribution of p onds in areas of public greenspace and has.
In some cases the loss of ponds due to urban expansion can be offset by the creation of new ponds in gardens. Swan and Oldham 19 97 reported a net increase in pond numbers following conversion of farmland to housing. This was explained by number of ponds created within domestic gardens. Po nd density in urban. Beebe , B anks and Laverick working in the conurbation of. Sunderland in n ortheast Engl and estimated a density of ga rden ponds of per km. Working with t he most modest of t hese estimates 67 garden ponds per km. Although garden ponds may va stly out number those in t he wider public landscape this d oes not.
Intensive management, poor design and the pr esence of. Garden ponds tend to be much smaller than those in the public real m. I n a study of. Although pond size did not emerge as a. In addition, p ond size is known to be a. As they are under the. How ever,. Despite the potential problems with garden ponds they may still make a substantial c ontribution to local. In such a way garden ponds have the p otential to form stepp ing stones between ot her ponds in the wider. Low de nsity devel opments would seem to favour the protection of pond n etworks, both in public.
However, growing pressure to increase urban infill. Both conservatio n and planning must move past si ngle site definitions. Muc h insight could be gained. The dataset collected as part of the curre nt st udy could f orm part of such long term. In this study a comparison has been made been two urban designs. Other designs have come. New Urbanis m and much could be gained through a study which compares a wide variety of urban. Pond Audit data was. Laborator y water analysis was carried. E volution. Banks B, Laverick G Garden po nds as amphibian breeding sites in a conurbatio n in northeast England.
Sunderland, Tyne and Wear , Herpeto logical Journal. B iological Conservation Nicolet P Factors affecting the nat ure conservation value of ponds: results o f the National Pond Survey. Aquatic Conservation Ma rine and Freshwater. Blackman D 30, homes needed each year. Society Guardian [Online], We dnesday, 27th April Accessed on 27th September Available online at:. Briers RA, Biggs J Spatial patter ns in pond invertebrate communities: separatin g environmental and. Aquatic Conservation: Mari ne and Freshwater Ecosystems. In Gent, T. CIRIA Clapton M Invincible green suburbs, b rave new towns.
Manchester Universit y Press. Department of. Dispersal characteristics of se ven odonate species in an. Ecography 22, 5 24— Convention on Biodiversity 2 Text of the Convention on Biodiversity available at. Provisional strategic environmental assess ment environmental report. Report No. Freshwater Biology 44 3 , —4 Official Journal of. English Nature Great crested ne wt mitigation guidelines. English Nature now Na tural England. English Nature A framework for the future: green networks with multiple uses in and around towns and.
Foster J Amphibians in the gard en: your questions answered. Natural England Gardening for Nature, No:. Bio diversity and Conservation - 4 Aquatic Conservation Mari ne and Freshwater Ecosystems. Joint Nature Conser vation Committee. Gledhill DG Factors affecting the o ccurrence and distribution of native amphibia ns species in northwest.
Pond Life Pro ject. Liverpool John Moores. University, Liverpool, England. Unpublis hed survey report. Engla nd. Available at. Archives of Environmental Contaminatio n and Toxicology, 29 4 , pp. A researc h report for English. Nature, No Environmental impacts tea m, English Nature. February Linton S and Goulder R Sp ecies richness of aquatic macrophytes in ponds relate d to number of species.
H ydrobiol. Introduction to Linear Regression Analysis. Office of the Dep uty Prime Minister,. Herpetological Journal 1 Rich T A comparison of the ponds i n the County of Cardiff with the nationa l statistics from the Lowland. Pond Survey. In Pond Action Proceedings of the Ponds. Conference Pond Action, Oxford , England.
Rump H and Krist H Laborato ry manual for the examination of water, waste water and soil. An investigation using pond invertebr ate assemblages. Freshwater Biology 47 9 , — Urban Water 2 47 — Cambr idge University Press,. I n: Boothby J ed. British pond landscape: action for pro tection and enhancement. UK conference of the P ond Life Project,. University College Chester, 7—9 Se ptember Pond Life Project, Liverpo ol, 3— Englis h Nature Research Reports. Wyatt N Birmingham pond survey. Citations References Global freshwater biodiversity is under severely threatened by many urbanized stressors; therefore, freshwater biodiversity conservation and freshwater habitat protection have become crucial worldwide.
Although farm ponds are man-made freshwater bodies that are often less than 2 ha Biggs et al. In addition, the connectivity between ponds can play a vital role in helping freshwater species adapt to environmental changes Thornhill et al. Farm ponds can substantially contribute to regional and local freshwater biodiversity Williams et al.
Farm ponds in Taoyuan Tableland possess environmental heterogeneity due to different land uses and human management practices; thus, these farm ponds provide a favorable opportunity to investigate farm pond biodiversity and pond management at the local scale. Ponds can play a crucial role in regional freshwater biodiversity Biggs et al. Gledhill et al. Appropriate management practices help enhance odonate species richness of small ponds in peri-urban landscapes.
Apr Urban Ecosyst. Wen-Chieh Chien. Adult odonate biodiversity was investigated to understand their relationship with pond management practices and environmental conditions in a rapidly urbanized landscape. Twenty-four farm ponds in Taoyuan City were selected and classified into five pond groups based on pond management practices.
In total, 21 species, 17 genera, and 6 families of odonates were recorded for a total of individuals between June and July The abundance of Odonata was unrelated to pond size or distance to the nearest pond; however, odonate species richness was negatively and significantly correlated with pond size. Pond management practices considerably affected pond aquatic macrophytes and dike construction materials.
Ecology park ponds under intense human management and undisturbed ponds without any human management had higher species richness than did the ponds in the other three fish farming groups. Species richness was highest in small and human-modified ponds. By contrast, species richness was lowest in two fish farming pond groups.
These results suggest that pond management practices can increase or reduce odonate species richness depending on the alteration of pond microhabitat features. Our observations suggest that the enhanced habitat quality of small ponds provides an opportunity to protect freshwater biodiversity for local governmental civil servants in urbanized landscapes. Regional factors include a set of characteristics that influence the probability of a species reaching a given site and large-scale en- vironmental conditions that affect the species pool in an entire region e. The diversity of macrophytes may increase with the abundance and proximity con- nectivity of other wetland habitats in the landscape e.
The regional effects associated with intensive land use e. This positive relation- ship between habitat connectivity and local richness has been observed in several macrophyte studies e. For example, Gledhill et al. Similarly, Biggs et al. Test of the efficiency of environmental surrogates for the conservation prioritization of ponds based on macrophytes.
Ponds are recognized as habitats of high biodiversity hosting many threatened freshwater species. They comprise a major part of the continental waters in Europe. Conservation strategies for abundant habitats like ponds inevitably call for the prioritization of the sites with the highest conservation value. In conservation planning, environmental surrogates are frequently used as proxies, providing readily available environmental information that adequately represents the biodiversity features of target systems. However, environmental surrogacy has mostly been tested in the terrestrial realm.
Here, we provide a first attempt to test the efficiency of environmental surrogates for the conservation prioritization of pond communities. Native and alien helophytes and hydrophytes were surveyed in 92 ponds in Central Europe. We combined the flexible regression tree approach with predictive modelling to test the efficiency of local and regional environmental surrogates in targeting pond habitats with a high conservation value. Among the candidate variables, the trophic state and connectivity emerged as the most promising surrogates for native species diversity.
However, the predictive performance of the surrogate schemes was relatively weak, providing low support for use of environmental surrogacy in pond conservation planning. If the preservation of hydrophyte diversity is considered a legitimate conservation goal, easily accessible GIS data on connectivity may save costs and effort during the prioritization of hydrophyte hotspots.
In the cases of other groups, detailed botanical surveys are necessary to make informed decisions on pond conservation. The occurrence and diversity of alien macrophytes was difficult to predict using the native species diversity or habitat characteristics of the ponds. A failure to identify surrogates for alien species and their strong potential impact on resident ecosystems implies that further monitoring of exotic plants in ponds is urgently needed, especially now, as the number of alien aquatic plant species steeply increases in Europe.
Ponds in urban areas are constructed for recreational reasons and also for microclimate regulation, for rainwater storage, or as ornamental features to improve public open spaces Bolund and Hunhammar They provide several ecosystem services that enhance human wellbeing e. Since the end of the 19th century, urbanization has increased exponentially and is expected to keep increasing, especially in developing countries Champion Seasonal and diel variation in greenhouse gas emissions from an urban pond and its major drivers.
Full-text available. Small water systems are important hotspots of greenhouse gas GHG emission, but estimates are poorly constrained as data are scarce. Small ponds are often constructed in urban areas, where they receive large amounts of nutrients and therefore tend to be highly productive. Here, we investigated GHG emissions, seasonal and diel variation, and net ecosystem production NEP from an urban pond.
No purchase necessary. Cannot be combined with any other of fer. Of fer expires Feb. Limit one coupon per person. The length of time is beneficial, because it allows Spreda and her assistant, Reilly Tabor, to really get to know the children. Dodd Leaders have had a hand in organizing breakfast with the Easter bunny and the Halloween carnival.
One year the kids chose to. Studies have shown that people who carry themselves with confidence are far less likely to be victimized; our inexpensive selfdefense program will give you the confidence you need in a fun, low-stress environment.
assignment in cheshire across the pond 1st in series book 2 Manual
Good for any two items on our menu. Requires a drink purchase. Lower priced item is fr e e. C a n n o t b e combined with any other of fer. Expires Feb. No contracts or long-term commitments. Wear comfortable, loose clothing. Participants obtained their own pledges, she said, and all the money went to a charity that the group chose. Leadership Continued from page 12 the meetings. Asked what they get out of it, the seventh and eighth graders responded that it gives students confidence in other areas of life when they get back into their schools and classrooms.
Milone announced that the net Grand List for Oct. At the current mill rate of The growth in the net Grand List is reflected in the following components: Real. Property owners wishing to appeal their Grand List real estate, business personal property assessment, or their supplemental motor vehicle assessment before the Board of Assessment Appeals must submit a written application to the Board of or before Feb.
By state statute, an appeal can be heard only if the written request has been submitted on the prescribed form to the Cheshire Board of Assessment Appeals by Feb. Temple Beth David, 3 Main St. For more information, call or visit www.
Meal includes homemade pasta fagioli, soup of the week, ziti, salad, bread, dessert and beverage. A fee is charged. Proceeds benefit St. Bridget School. All are welcome to join us for an enjoyable evening of good food and friendship. Cheshire Lutheran Church, W. Main St. Services; a. Christ Community Church, Main St. Congregation Kol Ami, Highland Ave. Johnson Ave. Shabbat service; Saturday, 10 a. Cornerstone Church, Waterbury Rd. Cornerstone cheshire.
Fellowship of Life Church, Sandbank Rd. Worship and teaching; Wednesday p. Revival prayer. And we truly enjoy the worry-free lifestyle. A New Day 10 week bereavement seminar is scheduled to begin Wednesday, Feb. Bridget School, Main St. The program is scheduled for to p. For more information, call or This lifestyle is popular, so plan ahead by getting your application in now. For more information, call The Masonicare HelpLine at English, 11 a. Joint worship service first Sunday of month at a. Oasis, Sandbank Rd. Rite I; a.
Rite 2. Thomas Becket Catholic Church, No. Brooksvale Rd. EST, 5 p. DST, Sunday 8, , 11 a. EST, 4 p. DST, Elim Park is seeking volunteers to assist with projects and volunteer positions throughout the facility. All volunteers will be given a tour, an orientation and appropriate training in their assigned department. For more information, call Allyson Palma, at , ext. What is corn chowder, you ask, and what makes it hearty?
My scale of soup heartiness goes like this.
Next is vegetable or tomato soup, the kind from a can served alongside a grilled cheese sandwich. Then comes chowder, an oldfashioned New England treat. Finally comes the heartiest: stew with lots of meat and vegetables. Recipes for a corn soup made with chicken stock and crab meat or chiles.
Most also insist that you must start with fresh corn and cut the kernels off the cob. Not likely in a New England winter. Try this easy, no-fuss recipe for tasty corn chowder that can be made in less than 30 minutes. Cut three or four. Remove the bits and put them aside. Cut a small onion into pieces and cook in the bacon fat until it is transparent. Dice a medium-tolarge potato and put it in the pan with the onion. Add some water, enough to barely cover the potato. Cover and let cook until the potato is tender, about 10 minutes. Add one ounce can of cream-style corn and the bacon bits.
Allow it to heat. Fill the corn can with milk and pour it into the pan. Continue to heat but do not allow the chowder to boil. Add salt and pepper to taste. Pour into bowls. Makes four skimpy or three generous servings. Serve with oyster crackers, saltines or, my favorite, homemade bread. I remember one occasion when corn chowder saved the day. It really hit the spot!
It is always served at the holiday bazaar luncheons. People look forward to its heartiness. What to do when school lets out early? Hit the ice with your sticks. Below, Michelle Anderson brooms snow from a neighborhood pond during the Jan. At left is her daughter Erica Anderson. The skaters in the middle are P. Marcouiller and his older brother, Lucas. Locals said it has been a long time since the pond has frozen over. At right, Marcouiller brothers try out the ice. Must be presented at time of purchase, not valid on work in progress.
Not valid on same day service. Cannot combine with any other offers. Directly in front of Faulkner Physical Therapy. Hours: Mon. If you need a card, please call Marsha at Marion Manufacturing, a third-generation familyowned specializing in metal stamping and wire form, has received the 16th annual Harold Webster Smith Award from the Waterbury Chamber of Commerce. The award recognizes small businesses that have shown achievement and excellence in operations and dedication to nurturing small business development.
Financing provided by GE. The deadline is Friday at 5 p. Boys swimming Cheshire vs. Daniel Hand at Cheshire Community Pool, 7 p. Boys basketball Cheshire vs. Lyman Hall at Cheshire, 7 p. For more information and tickets, call Debra Dickey at Ice hockey - Cheshire vs. Watertown at TaftsMays Rink, p.
The concert is free and open to the public. For more information, call the library at or visit www. The program is A Visit to China. Girls Basketball Cheshire vs. Admission fee includes unlimited bowling, shoe rental Friday and pizza. For more inuled for Friday, Feb. Actual vehicles may differ. Price is less any rebates. See salesperson for details, incentives may apply. Wruck at or lionjoyce comcast. Tickets www. Lunch reservations must be made 48 hours in advance by calling A donation is requested. Monday, Feb. Tuesday, Feb. Wednesday, Feb.
Thursday, Feb. Friday, Feb. Judith Shea is pleased to welcome Dr. Claire Jakimetz to her practice. Claire Jakimetz brings a wealth of experience working with all ages. She is looking forward to providing the exceptional Care that patients have come to know and expect from CHCC. Most Insurance Plans Are Accepted. Sign-up is required. Senior Bookworms Tuesday, Feb.
New members are welcome. Brain Health - Wednesday, Feb. The program is free, but registration is required by Feb. Cooking with Chef Craig - Wednesday, Feb. Health care Center. Space is limited. Transportation available on request. Licensed drivers are welcome to have a free and confidential driver safety screening. Pre-registration is required at No fee, registration is required.
Topics discussed will be conservatorship, and. Advance registration is required by Feb. Lunch and a movie Monday, Feb. Lunch served at a. Movie, at p. Photo ID - Monday, Feb. Monthly Dance Party Thursday, Feb. Bring a non-perishbale food item for the food pantry. Music provided by Vinnie Carr. Connecting with your grandchildren Do you feel disconnected.
Let your loved one spend the day in a social and medically supervised atmosphere allowing them to live at home enjoying the peace, comfort and security of family. Senior Calendar Monday, Feb. Dinner is at Dancing to the music of The Bernadettes at p. Proceeds benefit the Wounded Warrior Project. Career Magnet at Career Magnet, 7 p. To register for the races, visit www. Adults can begin a free 10 week training program for the 5K.
Weekly training schedules and other information for beginner runner will be sent via email. To subscribe for the free service, send your email address to dpaxton sccymca. Emails will be sent every Sunday beginning March For more information, contact Donna Paxton at , ext. Moultan is a prolific author with 22 books to his credit. Hillard Good is a renowned illustrator and artist. For this shared effort, Chalmers assisted in creating content concepts, while Moultan wrote and Hillard Good illustrated. Chalmers has even bigger dreams for other Earth2 projects as he continues to introduce his book to as many.
Join the Wheeler Clinic Foster Care team and help us make a difference in the life of a child. For more information, call Jennie Hannon at with your grandchildren? Would you like to be a better or Ruth Waldman at For cerns many families face. Monday of each month. Trips are scheduled Pre-registration is requested; walk-ins are wel- through the Senior Center come. For more information, Travel Club.
Payment for call For more Cheshire, CT Checks information, call Jennie may be dropped off with violet Hannon at or in the main office. Cash is not Ann Arisco at To the editor: The Town Council will begin the process of developing the operating budget for fiscal year in the coming months.
The town manager must develop his budget including the education budget, which he may adjust in the final budget that he delivers to the town council. The council, through public meetings and workshops, will reshape the budget to account for changes it deems necessary to deliver town services. The public is encouraged to participate in the process, but if past is prologue the input from the public will be minimal. I feel particular angst for taxpayers who have been scolded by Board of Education Chairman Gerry Brittingham for whining about tax increases.
A decisive majority of taxpayers recognized that this was a town need not a Republican pet project. I also fully understand the sense of glee expressed by Dr. We are maintaining our schools and the operating budgets and capital budgets bear this out. The council is working on performance contracting initiatives that may help fund significant infrastructure improvements in our schools and other public properties without additional tax burdens on the public.
As the budget process unfolds my goal is to be fair. That fairness must be weighted towards the average taxpayer who pays for the whole budget, not only the increase. My job is to get it as right as I can without breaking your back. Government Meetings Tuesday, Feb. Library Board, Cheshire Library, 7 p. Public Building Commission, 7 p. Cit i zen 11 Crown St. Meriden, CT www. This significant shortfall almost certainly will mean that — unlike in the current fiscal year — state funding for municipalities will decrease. Each town and city must plan accordingly. Dannel P. Malloy inauspiciously told town leaders at a recent conference on Connecticut budgeting The Connecticut Mirror, In the last two years, Malloy and his peers avoided causing this pain with methods of fiscal relief largely other than municipal-money reductions.
In return, he guaranteed these organizations no layoffs or wage alterations for four years. Thus, another option unavailable in So who will feel the pain? Expect these numbers to decline. Unfortunately, big budget cuts could befall a public institution which can least afford them — schools. Brendan Sharkey. Shrinking school funding negatively affects student potential. Teacher layoffs cause increased class sizes, and pupils will receive fewer valuable, one-on-one interactions with instructors. Elimination of creative arts programs and electives removes educational avenues through which kids can become morewell-rounded adults.
Maintaining high levels of school funding is essential in allowing for a successful future for younger generations. One intriguing alternative proposed for red-ink reduction is changing a state law which limits municipal leaders from asking that employees contribute more to cover retirement and healthcare costs. This could save towns and cities millions in payments. Workers in private sectors have been in similar contribution systems for years.
Connecticut has a deep deficit to overcome. A steep dip in state financing for municipalities is probable. Taking that into account, civic decision-makers must build budgets this year with circumspect consideration of what programs and services are essential — and what can be trimmed without severely damaging the community. New, closed-top, secure recycling bins went out to 8, households in November. From then until the end of December, the town diverted 40 tons of what would have previously been treated as garbage into recycling. It saves time.
It saves money. He also added that he wishes the bins were a little bigger. The new recycling program takes the place of the bin system that had been in place for years. The bin system required residents to sort materials for recycling, then place the bins curbside for pickup. Often, animals would get into the bins and drag materi-. In addition, residents were more limited as to what they could place in the bins. The new program allows more items to be recycled. Now residents can put anything from. For a list of what is acceptable for recycling, visit www. Letters policy - E-mail letters to news thecheshirecitizen.
We reserve the right to edit letters. We do not list names of people, organizations and businesses being thanked. Whenever I feel something coming on, or begin to suspect I may be suffering from some exotic affliction, which happens more often than I probably want to tell you about, the first thing I do is call my doctor. What I do is Google. Google is great because not only can it be used as both a noun and a verb you can type just about anything into it and get some kind of response.
How did I manage to get along? Several years ago, I rather sheepishly admitted to using the internet for self diagnosis to my doctor.